Overview of 5G: Protocols and Standards, Benefits and Challenges

5G Technology is the 5th Generation wireless technology that has not only upgraded the mobile network performance, but has also taken Internet of Things (IoT) to the next level. 5G is a cellular broadband technology and a network of networks. This technology does not just mean faster mobile internet for consumers, but mainly internet connectivity in many more objects than what you see today. Drones, self driving cars and automated houses were made possible by proper integration of IoT and 5G network technology. You will learn how 5G technology has helped in transforming the world and some future expectations.

future expectations of 5g wireless network technology

5G Technology Overview

Commercial deployment of 5G was expected to be in 2020. The first 5G New Radio standards for a Non–Standalone (NSA) solution was launched in December 2017. While that of Stand Alone (SA) standard was launched in June 2018. Since then some companies like Cisco, Ericsson, Samsung, Apple, LG, Motorola, Nokia, Samsung, etc. have started integrating 5G in some of their recent products.

5G Challenges in the Telecom Industry

  • The implementation of 5G while still using 3G and 4G networks will bring up a new frequency spectrum challenge for Mobile Network Operators. To solve this challenge, they will need to upgrade their frequency range, say up to 300 GHz. This will entail a heavy investment cost on the side of the Mobile Network Operators.
  • Mobile Service Market Saturation: The penetration of mobile services is close to saturation.
  • Traffic Increase, Revenue Not: DUO up, revenue not, because of the price down.
  • Marginal Benefit Decline: Bundle mobile services, bundle TV services, and bundle traffic, broadband services increase a little, but the marginal cost benefits decrease.
  • Service Replaced: Traditional services will be replaced by functions.


Difference Between 5G and Previous Generation Technologies

Evolution of Mobile Communication

5G is the latest generation of cellular mobile communications. It succeeds the 4G, 3G and 2G technologies. 5G performance targets:

  • High data rate
  • Reduced latency
  • Energy saving
  • Cost reduction
  • Higher system capacity
  • Massive device connectivity

2G (50 to 100 kbps speed; about 600ms latency) was mainly designed for massive mobile voice communication.

3G (about 1 Mbps speed and about 300ms latency) was mainly designed for browsing. It features mobile broadband introduction.

4G (about 10 Mbps speed and about 50ms latency) was mainly designed for video (voice and data). Smartphone popularization and mobile data traffic exponentially increased.

5G (about 10 Gbps speed and about 1ms latency) was mainly designed for industries. Any device can provide access to the content and enable new business opportunities across industries.

5G and IoT

IoT is driven by 5G. But in most real life applications, both of them complement each other. 5G supersedes IoT. Unlike current IoT services that make performance trade-offs to get the best from current wireless technologies like 3G, 4G, WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee, etc., 5G networks provides the level of performance needed for massive IoT.

5G Use Cases

In massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC), it entails low cost, low energy, small data volumes and massive numbers in the following:

  • Smart meter
  • Smart Agriculture
  • Logistics
  • Tracking
  • Fleet Management

In critical Machine Type Communication (cMTC), it entails ultra reliability, very low latency and very high availability in the following:

  • Industrial applications and control. For example, sensors to actuators real-time communication use 5G.
  • Remote manufacturing
  • Traffic safety and control
  • Remote training
  • Remote surgery
  • Driverless cars navigation
  • Healthcare monitoring systems
  • Drones/robotics applications

Enhanced Mobile Broadband in:

  • Homes
  • Enterprises
  • Venues
  • Mobile/Wireless/Fixed
  • Non-SIM devices
  • Smartphones
  • Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) Games
  • 4K/8K UHD Videos
  • Broadcasting


Road to 5G

Spectrum Readiness:

  • New Sub-1 GHz Spectrum
  • New Sub-6 GHz Spectrum
  • and New mmWave Spectrum

Device Ecosystem:

  • 5G Handsets and Routers
  • 5G/NB-IoT Chipsets and Devices

Network Virtualisation:

  • Network Function Virtualisation
  • Software-Defined Networking

Radio Evolution:

  • Evolve and Densify LTE
  • Rollout NB-IoT
  • Deploy 5G New Radio
  • Cloud RAN

Radio Access Network (RAN) Deployment Strategy for 5G


  • Non-Stand Alone (NSA) and Stand Alone (SA)
  • CloudRAN

Coverage and Capacity:

  • Spectrum
  • CloudAIR
  • Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
  • Site Readiness
  • Indoor Digitization


  • FWA: WTTx
  • Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB): AR/VR
  • Ultra Reliable and Low Latency Communication (uRLLC): Connected, Car, Drone
  • Massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC)



5G wireless technology will really help to make life easy. Some of the challenges faced by Mobile Network Operators and other companies implementing this technology will be solved in future. This means more useful application of 5G will be discovered. Here is how you can automatically control your water pump.

Do you have any contribution to make in this topic? Comment it below. Don’t forget to subscribe to our blog via email so that you will be the first to be notified once we drop new tech articles. Share this article with your friends on social media by clicking a share button. Enjoy!


Recommended Business and Entrepreneurship Books

the passionate entrepreneurs strategies book by buzzer joseph

The Passionate Entrepreneur’s Strategies: Learn how to discover business ideas that will be successful, grow multiple online income streams, make money from home, attract new & retain customers, applications of SWOT analysis in any business, skills that will help you succeed as an entrepreneur, self-discipline, etc. Lucrative Business Ideas Series Book 1. By Buzzer Joseph. Read more about the book.

how to make money from blogging and affiliate marketing book by buzzer joseph

How to Make Money from Blogging & Affiliate Marketing: Learn the Step by Step Guide of Creating, Growing & Optimizing your WordPress Blog from Scratch for Search Engines (SEO) & How to Make Money through Google AdSense, Affiliate Marketing & Other Strategies for Earning Passive Income Online. Lucrative Business Ideas Series Book 2. By Buzzer Joseph. Read more about the book.

how to make money self publishing kindle books by buzzer joseph

How to Make Money Self-Publishing Kindle Books for Beginners: Learn the Step by Step Guide to Self-Publish a Best Selling Book on Amazon KDP, How to Design Book Covers with Adobe Photoshop, Format, Edit & Proofread your Book Manuscript with Microsoft Word, Promote your Book on Various Online Platforms & Earn Monthly Passive Income Online. Lucrative Business Ideas Series Book 3. By Buzzer Joseph. Read more about the book.

diy grid and off-grid solar pv installation guide by buzzer joseph

Complete Solar PV System Installation Guide: DIY guide on how to install grid-connected & off-grid solar PV systems, how to build solar-powered electric cars, convert conventional cars to electric cars, online & offline ways to make money from solar energy sector (including stocks), electrical wiring & protection system installation guides, plus free resources for skill acquisition and personal development. Lucrative Business Ideas Series Book 4. By Buzzer Joseph. Read more about the book.

how to make money from cryptocurrency trading and investments by buzzer joseph

How to Make Money from Crypto Trading & Investing for Beginners: Step by step guide with screenshots on the basics of blockchain technology, bitcoin & altcoins, crypto security tips, cryptocurrency market analysis (FA & TA), long term & short term trading, how to calculate your profits in excel, legit ways to make money with cryptocurrencies, DeFi yield farming & staking, how to use any centralized & decentralized exchange platform & more, plus crypto investment bonus! Lucrative Business Ideas Series Book 5. By Buzzer Joseph. Read more about the book.

Subscribe to Our Blog Newsletters (Enter your email address)

* indicates required
Follow us on social media

Recommended For You

About the Author: Buzzer Joseph

I am an entrepreneur who believes that anybody can achieve whatever goal he sets, so long as you follow the right path. I fully decided to take entrepreneurship as a lifestyle in 2014 and have never regretted that decision. Even though I failed many times, but my failures helped me discover my hidden potentials. Check out my Amazon Author Page at https://amazon.com/author/buzzerjoseph. I blog at Buzzing Point - https://www.buzzingpoint.com and Microsoft Tutorials - https://www.microsofttut.com where I help young entrepreneurs to discover their hidden potentials and how to turn their passions into long term income streams. Also, I am very active in Quora, especially in my spaces, Lucrative Business Ideas - https://lucrativebusinessideas.quora.com/. In fact, I can't do without the internet. I love surfing the net and making research. I love updating my fans on the latest buzzing info. Apart from surfing the internet, you can also find me playing badminton game or tennis.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *