Overview of 5G – Protocols & Standards, Benefits & Challenges

5G Technology is the 5th Generation wireless technology that has not only upgraded the mobile network performance, but has also taken Internet of Things (IoT) to the next level. 5G is a cellular broadband technology and a network of networks. This technology does not just mean faster mobile internet for consumers, but mainly internet connectivity in many more objects than what you see today. Drones, self driving cars and automated houses were made possible by proper integration of IoT and 5G network technology. You will learn how 5G technology has helped in transforming the world and some future expectations.

future expectations of 5g wireless network technology

5G Technology Overview

Commercial deployment of 5G was expected to be in 2020. The first 5G New Radio standards for a Non–Standalone (NSA) solution was launched in December 2017. While that of Stand Alone (SA) standard was launched in June 2018. Since then some companies like Cisco, Ericsson, Samsung, Apple, LG, Motorola, Nokia, Samsung, etc. have started integrating 5G in some of their recent products.

5G Challenges in the Telecom Industry

  • The implementation of 5G while still using 3G and 4G networks will bring up a new frequency spectrum challenge for Mobile Network Operators. To solve this challenge, they will need to upgrade their frequency range, say up to 300 GHz. This will entail a heavy investment cost on the side of the Mobile Network Operators.
  • Mobile Service Market Saturation: The penetration of mobile services is close to saturation.
  • Traffic Increase, Revenue Not: DUO up, revenue not, because of the price down.
  • Marginal Benefit Decline: Bundle mobile services, bundle TV services, and bundle traffic, broadband services increase a little, but the marginal cost benefits decrease.
  • Service Replaced: Traditional services will be replaced by functions.

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Difference Between 5G and Previous Generation Technologies

Evolution of Mobile Communication

5G is the latest generation of cellular mobile communications. It succeeds the 4G, 3G and 2G technologies. 5G performance targets:

  • High data rate
  • Reduced latency
  • Energy saving
  • Cost reduction
  • Higher system capacity
  • Massive device connectivity

2G (50 to 100 kbps speed; about 600ms latency) was mainly designed for massive mobile voice communication.

3G (about 1 Mbps speed and about 300ms latency) was mainly designed for browsing. It features mobile broadband introduction.

4G (about 10 Mbps speed and about 50ms latency) was mainly designed for video (voice and data). Smartphone popularization and mobile data traffic exponentially increased.

5G (about 10 Gbps speed and about 1ms latency) was mainly designed for industries. Any device can provide access to the content and enable new business opportunities across industries.

5G and IoT

IoT is driven by 5G. But in most real life applications, both of them complement each other. 5G supersedes IoT. Unlike current IoT services that make performance trade-offs to get the best from current wireless technologies like 3G, 4G, WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee, etc., 5G networks provides the level of performance needed for massive IoT.

5G Use Cases

In massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC), it entails low cost, low energy, small data volumes and massive numbers in the following:

  • Smart meter
  • Smart Agriculture
  • Logistics
  • Tracking
  • Fleet Management

In critical Machine Type Communication (cMTC), it entails ultra reliability, very low latency and very high availability in the following:

  • Industrial applications and control. For example, sensors to actuators real-time communication use 5G.
  • Remote manufacturing
  • Traffic safety and control
  • Remote training
  • Remote surgery
  • Driverless cars navigation
  • Healthcare monitoring systems
  • Drones/robotics applications

Enhanced Mobile Broadband in:

  • Homes
  • Enterprises
  • Venues
  • Mobile/Wireless/Fixed
  • Non-SIM devices
  • Smartphones
  • Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) Games
  • 4K/8K UHD Videos
  • Broadcasting

Road to 5G

Spectrum Readiness:

  • New Sub-1 GHz Spectrum
  • New Sub-6 GHz Spectrum
  • and New mmWave Spectrum

Device Ecosystem:

  • 5G Handsets and Routers
  • 5G/NB-IoT Chipsets and Devices

Network Virtualisation:

  • Network Function Virtualisation
  • Software-Defined Networking

Radio Evolution:

  • Evolve and Densify LTE
  • Rollout NB-IoT
  • Deploy 5G New Radio
  • Cloud RAN

Radio Access Network (RAN) Deployment Strategy for 5G

Architecture:

  • Non-Stand Alone (NSA) and Stand Alone (SA)
  • CloudRAN

Coverage and Capacity:

  • Spectrum
  • CloudAIR
  • Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
  • Site Readiness
  • Indoor Digitization

Services:

  • FWA: WTTx
  • Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB): AR/VR
  • Ultra Reliable and Low Latency Communication (uRLLC): Connected, Car, Drone
  • Massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC)

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Conclusion

5G wireless technology will really help to make life easy. Some of the challenges faced by Mobile Network Operators and other companies implementing this technology will be solved in future. This means more useful application of 5G will be discovered.

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Buzzer Joseph

Am a guy that can't do without the internet. I love surfing the net and making research. I love updating my fans on the latest buzzing info. Apart from surfing the internet, you can also find me playing badminton game or tennis.

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